Global Natural History Initiative Builds Groundbreaking Database to Address 21st Century Challenges

Effort Connects More Than a Billion Objects in Scientific Collections Across 73 Museums in 28 Countries

Findings Shared in New Paper Published in Science Magazine on March 23, 2023

The vast collection of crustaceans of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
The vast collection of crustaceans of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County provides an excellent record of these organisms from the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Collections such as this one shed light on the impact of urban encroachment on marine life.

Washington, DC, New York, NY, London, England, and Los Angles, CA (March 23, 2023)–A group of natural history museums, organized by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC, the American Museum of Natural History Museum in New York City, and the Natural History Museum in London, has mapped the total collections from 73 of the world’s largest natural history museums in 28 countries. This is the first step of an ambitious effort to inventory global holdings that can help scientists and decision-makers find solutions to urgent, wide-ranging issues such as climate change, food insecurity, human health, pandemic preparedness, and wildlife conservation. As the largest natural and cultural history collection in the western United States, the Natural History Museums of Los Angeles County cares for and exhibits more than 35 million specimens and artifacts–a crucial part of this ambitious global inventory.

“Natural history collections survey the world's history but they are not about the past–they speak to the future of our planet. To successfully champion biodiversity, address climate change, and further a more equitable and inclusive scientific field we must build strategic collaborations. Creating a global collection expands our knowledge and improves access. As we face the greatest environmental crisis in the history of humanity, it is imperative that we engage in this forward-thinking work, ” said Dr. Lori Bettison-Varga, President and Director, NHMLAC.

two juvenile Chinese Paddlefishes
These two juvenile Chinese paddlefishes represent a species that was declared extinct in the wild in 2019.  Global museum collections are one of the only ways for scientists to study extinct species.
Natural History Museums of Los Angeles County /Bill Ludt

Beyond the walls of their public galleries, the world’s natural history museums serve as the guardians of an unprecedented archive of the history of our planet and solar system. These natural history collections provide a unique window into the planet’s past, and they are increasingly being used to make actionable forecasts to chart our future. Museums have traditionally acted as independent organizations, but this new approach imagines a global collection composed of all the collections of all the world’s museums. 
To better understand this immense, untapped resource, lead scientists from a dozen large natural history museums created an innovative but simple framework to rapidly evaluate the size and composition of natural history museum collections globally. The findings were published today in Science magazine in the paper, “A Global Approach for Natural History Museum Collections.” The Science paper can be found online at the Science press package at

The survey organizers created a methodology that could rapidly survey collection holdings across museums by creating a common vocabulary of 19 collection types spanning the entirety of biological, geological, paleontological, and anthropological collections and 16 terrestrial and marine regions that cover the entirety of the Earth.

California quail tags
Museum collections carefully preserve specimens and also the information that accompanies them. The data on this quail’s tag are an important part of this historical record, linking it to a specific time and place.
Natural History Museums of Los Angeles County / Allison Shultz

“We wanted to find a fast way to estimate the size and composition of the global collection so that we could begin to build a collective strategy for the future,” said lead author Kirk Johnson, Sant Director of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Johnson co-led the effort along with Ian F. P. Owens (formerly at the Natural History Museum in London and now the Executive Director of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology) in collaboration with more than 150 museum directors and scientists representing 73 natural history museums and herbaria.

The survey confirmed an aggregate collection of more than 1.1 billion objects, managed by more than 4,500 science staff and nearly 4,000 volunteers. While the aggregate collection is vast, the survey showed that there are conspicuous gaps across museum collections in areas including tropic and polar regions, marine systems, and undiscovered arthropod and microbial diversity. These gaps could provide a roadmap for coordinated collecting efforts going forward.

The report is a significant summary, but it is only the first step in surveying the global collection and tapping its enormous potential. Natural history collections are uniquely positioned to inform responses to today’s interlocking crises, but due to lack of funding and coordination, the information embedded in museum collections remains largely inaccessible. With strategic coordination, a global collection has the potential to guide decisions that will shape the future of humanity and biodiversity.

Shells of Cuban painted snails at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
Shells of Cuban painted snails at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. These beautiful land snails are critically endangered as a result of illegal trade.
Natural History Museums of Los Angeles County

By creating this framework and survey, project organizers aim to create a foundation for the global museum network to work together to support future global sustainability, biodiversity, and climate frameworks using knowledge gained from museum collections. This will enable all museums to be more strategic as they plan their collection efforts in the future.

The authors also recognize that the historic concentration of large museums in North America and Europe can be a barrier to knowledge-sharing and perpetuates power imbalances rooted in the colonial history of museum science. In the future, it is crucial that the global collection also reflect and support museums elsewhere in the world.

“Natural history collections are the evidence from which scientists derive knowledge, including knowledge that can be applied to critical issues facing our planet today.” said Michael Novacek, curator in the Division of Paleontology and former provost of science at the American Museum of Natural History. “This has never been more urgent than today, as global biodiversity loss and climate change are accelerating.”

“This global view of natural science collections emphasizes their combined potential to help us act in response to the planetary crisis. It also demonstrates an ongoing commitment and responsibility to build equitable international collaboration and capacity with partners from all countries, harnessing the latest technological advances to further scientific understanding and make data available for all. This vast and progressively united infrastructure of collections and expertise represents a crucial resource in scientific understanding and prediction of global change, supporting action to avoid disaster,” said Doug Gurr, Director of the Natural History Museum in London.

NHMLAC Rancho La Brea saber teeth
Millions of fossils from La Brea Tar Pits—including thousands of saber-toothed cats and their long canines (shown here)—have been unearthed from the heart of Los Angeles. These fossils provide us an extraordinary opportunity to study how past climate change impacted the plant and animal communities under conditions that were very similar to today.
Natural History Museums of Los Angeles County

The paper considers applications of collection-based research, focusing on case studies that explore how museum natural history collections can be used to study pandemic preparedness, global change, biodiversity, invasive species, colonial heritage, and museomics (study of DNA from museum specimens). Case study examples of each of the above applications are available here:
As the authors write, “The long-term security and value of natural history collections depends on developing global and local partnerships that demonstrate not only their relevance for specific scientific, societal, and conservation challenges but also for the benefits that apply to every person on the planet.”

The full Global Collections dashboard is available here: 

Images that address some of the issues raised in the paper can be found here:
The full list of participating institutions and authors can be found here: 

About the Natural History Museums of Los Angeles County (NHMLAC)
The Natural History Museums of Los Angeles County (NHMLAC) include the Natural History Museum, La Brea Tar Pits, and the William S. Hart Museum.  They operate under the collective vision to inspire wonder, discovery, and responsibility for our natural and cultural worlds. The museums hold one of the world’s most extensive and valuable collections of natural and cultural history—more than 35 million objects. Using these collections for groundbreaking scientific and historical research, the museums also incorporate them into on- and offsite nature and culture exploration in L.A. neighborhoods, and a slate of community science programs—creating indoor-outdoor visitor experiences that explore the past, present, and future. Visit NHMLAC.ORG for adventure, education, and entertainment opportunities.